Swami Vivekananda On Science and Spirituality


Swami Vivekananda On Science and Spirituality

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In a world that often emphasizes the clash between science and spirituality, it can be difficult to find a balance between the two. Enter Swami Vivekananda: the 19th-century Indian Hindu monk and philosopher who was instrumental in introducing Eastern philosophy to the Western world. Vivekananda believed that science and spirituality could exist harmoniously, and he dedicated much of his life to exploring their relationship. In this blog article, we’ll look at some of his key insights on science and spirituality to gain a better understanding of how these two realms can work together.

What is science

  • In order to understand what science is, we must first ask ourselves what knowledge is. Knowledge, according to the Swami Vivekananda, is defined as 'that which can be known.' He goes on to say that there are two types of knowledge: relative and absolute. Relative knowledge is concerned with the empirical world and is always changing. It is based on our senses and subject to error. Absolute knowledge, on the other hand, is perfect and eternal. It is not bound by the limitations of our senses and is beyond all error.
  • Science is a system of acquiring knowledge about the natural world through observation and experimentation. The goal of science is to explain these observations in a way that can be tested and verified. 

What is spirituality

  • Spirituality is often seen as a religious or philosophical concept, but it can also be viewed as a state of being or way of living. To some, spirituality is about connecting with a higher power or the divine; to others, it's about developing one's own sense of self and purpose. There are many different paths to spirituality, and there is no single right or wrong way to pursue it.
  • Some people find spirituality through organized religion, while others may develop their own beliefs and practices outside of any formal tradition. Some people see spirituality as a way to connect with nature, while others see it as a personal journey inward. There are endless possibilities for how one can explore and experience spirituality.

Swami Vivekananda on Science and Spirituality

  • Swami Vivekananda was a Hindu monk who is credited with helping to spread Hinduism in the West. He is also known for his work on science and spirituality. In this article, we will explore some of Swami Vivekananda's thoughts on these two topics.
  • On science, Swami Vivekananda said: 'There is no limit to the progress of science. Its discoveries are always fresh and new, and it is ever growing and expanding. But there is a limit to our knowledge of science, and that limit is reached when we try to apply it to the spiritual world.' He also said: 'The true spirit of science is harmony between knowledge and practice, head and heart.'
  • On spirituality, Swami Vivekananda said: 'Spirituality does not mean other-worldliness or turning away from this world. It means perfecting this world.' He also said: 'The essence of all religions is one. Only their approaches are different.'

Relationship between Science and Spirituality

  • Science is the study of the material world and spirituality is the study of the immaterial world. The two are not mutually exclusive, but complementary. Science deals with the how and spirituality deals with the why.
  • Science is based on observation and experimentation, while spirituality is based on faith and intuition. Both approaches are needed to fully understand reality. Science can tell us how things work, but it cannot tell us why they exist. Spirituality can tell us why things exist, but it cannot always tell us how they work.
  • The relationship between science and spirituality is one of mutual respect and cooperation. Science needs spirituality to help it understand the meaning and purpose of life, while spirituality needs science to help it understand the material world.

Importance of Science and Spirituality

  • In his book, 'The Science of Being and Art of Living', Swami Vivekananda writes: 'There is no conflict between science and spirituality. Science is based on facts and spiritual knowledge is based on experience. Both are essential for a complete understanding of existence.'
  • Spirituality gives us a direct experience of the divine, whereas science deals with the indirect experience of the material world. Science is based on observation, experimentation and deduction, while spirituality is based on revelation, intuition and faith.
  • Both science and spirituality are necessary for a full understanding of reality. They complement each other and help us to understand the world in which we live from different perspectives.
  • Science deals with the material world and the laws that govern it, while spirituality deals with the inner world of the mind and spirit. Both are concerned with truth and both have their own methods of investigation.
  • Spirituality helps us to connect with our higher selves and to access our true potential, while science provides us with a better understanding of the material world around us. They both play an important role in our lives and should be seen as complementary rather than conflicting.


  • Swami Vivekananda's views on science and spirituality remain profoundly inspirational to this day. He saw them both as intertwined, giving each its due respect in order to further the understanding of our place in the universe. 
  • To him, science provided an opportunity for humans to explore our own potentials and use the power of knowledge for constructive purposes. 
  • Spirituality was a means of perceiving life beyond just physical reality and entreating us to consider how we can become more compassionate beings with genuine care for one another. In essence, he believed that only through a holistic balance between science and spirituality could humanity be truly free.
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